Factories can also be split into another two categories: Renewable and Non-Renewable.
Renewable: Renewable factories will be built on an area of Flora or Basic Resources instead of Cleared Land. This means that they will only use Money and Power every time you collect. For example, a Sawmill (Forest) is built on 10km2 of Forest. It doesn't consume 10km2 of Forest every time you collect.
Non-Renewable: Non-Renewable factories are built on Cleared Land and use a certain resource every time you collect. You will have to continually find resources to keep up with the consumption of those resources through your factories. For example, a Beekeeper uses 1 Beehive and turns it into Consumer Goods. Once you collect from that factory, the Beehives you used are gone forever. You will need to find more Beehives to collect from that factory next time.
Clarification: Non-renewable only applies to Resources such as Fauna and Flora. Every factory consumes Commodities, and if commodities made every factory non-renewable it would defeat the purpose of those two categories.
The tables below won't mention whether they're CC or RC, or if they're renewable or non-renewable because you should be able to figure it out.
Each factory has 48 production capacity. Each factories' production capacity is stated when it is being built. For example, the production capacity of a farm is stated when it is built. However, this isn't affected by the efficiency of the factory(ies) that you already have. One production capacity is done in half an hour, so a factory fills up in a day
For most factories (exceptions being Brewery and the Gemmer) you can spend Money, Building Materials, and Metal to make it 10% more efficient. In most factories, this is capped at 150%, but it is lower for some factories.
For example, at 100% efficiency, the Supergrass Producer takes 6 Money and 11 Power and gives an output of 15 Food and 3 Consumer Goods. At maximum efficiency (140% for the Supergrass Producer), it takes 6 Money and 11 Power and gives an output of 21 Food and 4.2 Consumer Goods.
This wouldn't be a good investment to make when you have very few factories of that type, due to the immensely high cost of doing so (for the Supergrass Producer, it costs about 150,000 Metal alone to upgrade to max efficiency). Be aware that if you upgrade a factory, destroy that factory, and then rebuild the same kind of factory, the game will not have remembered that you upgraded the efficiency of that kind of factory.
List of Factories
The list of factories was too long to put on this page so it's been split up into the following pages: